"In barely three generations,the population of the globe will have passed four
thousand million. Eighty thousand will be aged under twenty-five.The result will
be fantastic transformations in every domain.a biological strugle between generations
unfurling all over the planet,destrouying existing political,social,urban,scientific,artistic
and ideological frameworks..."
(Iannis Xenakis,to "Kraanerg")
Shamanism of Xenakis
"Time may change the technique of music,but
may never alters its mission"
"I try to write music that did not exist.I am not
sure that i was successful in that.
But this is what I mean to do,i try to do."
Complexity in the reviewing of this european modernism genius composer creative
actvity consists, probably,not even of music itself,-Xenakis expressed always
not only own idea of music,but also reflections of musical culture as creation
of new spaces for art,- but of glance to presented by him creative variety.Xenakis,one
of the most original composers of XX century,more known as born in Rumania in
greek family french composer,architect and mathematician,student of russian
composer Aristotle Kundurov,wrote a big amount of brilliant orchestra works
and solo music,continued his search in analoque noise landscapes,manipulation
of electro/electromagnetic structures and electro acoustics.
As many electro-acoustic composers,he never gave any annotations to the works.Noise,rhythmical,
time and dinamic,architecturally-structured,ritualistic-consistent of his music,similar
only to elecrto shamanism as it exists.
"The crowd is then rapidly dispressed,and after sonic and visual hell follows
a detonating calm, full of despair,dust, and dearth...Here we touch on one of
the great problem that have haunted human intellegence since antiquity:continuous
or discontinuous transformation...transformation..." Try to understand Xenakis
is to try to crack atom,where every next attempt releases new, unexpected phemonena.he
is often being tried to define in the range of "stochastic music"-created according
to the principle of indeterminism in 1958 and based on massive musical strategy
calculus of probability of with the usage of mathematical constructions of structured
sound.-"to calculate the musical events,which consist of dense sonorities with
much sliding,from note to note and individual parts for every player in the
# or",he used different mathematical ideas of Phythagor,including stochastic
processes contrary to neo-serialism,dominating in the works of those time composers
and extraordinary algorithmic modalities.But it is only one among big variety
of elements,presenting conseptual world of Xenakis.Here can be added architecture,greek
antiquity,different cosmologies and physical aspects. As ancient greek mathematician
and musician Piphagor ,he saw music as microcosm,existing according to similar
mathematical rules of organixation and rhythmical energy, created unique personal
outlook and creative language of this century. "Everyone habserved the sonic
phemomena of a poiltical crowd of dozens or hundreds of thousandes of people.The
huamn river shouts a slogan in a uniform rhythm",-he wrote in 1955 in famous
"Formalized Music","probably one of the most inmportant theoretical work of
our time" (John Myhill)
His percistent search of himself made him unique,intergrated his influences
in the world in correlation with charactyrizing him intellect and mysterious
inner spirit of uncompromisive aethetics. War as a question of human condition,dissonance
between presence and absense,expression of metha-language, internal biological
turbulence. His war years experience,included episodes of violence,giant strikes
and riots,became an engine of his creative mind.
"The esplanation of the world and consequently of the sound phenomenon that
surrounds us,or that may be created,required on enlargement of the causal principle,the
basis of which is formed by the law of the great numbers".
after the war he lived in Paris,where worked with architector La Corbusier.Education
with Olivier Messiaen inspired him for reflecting geometry in certain form and
sound,compising ingenering and composition.
in 1954 was created his first work "Metastasis",focused on connection between
physiology and metaphor, war as technology,organization of noise sounding and
noise itself. "He invents his own scales.He doesnt repeat himself.He doesnt
follow formulas.He doesnt recognize a geneology in Classical music.He doesnt
follow trends or listen to anyone else's music,nor to his own..."
In 1957 Edgard Varese wrote "Poeme Electronique" for the world fair,especially
created for "Phillips" pavilion,built by La Corbusier with Xenakis help.Composer
himself created "Concret PH",where used one sound sourse-amplified burning charcoal.
"I likened it to the onset of madness,when a person suddenly realizes that an
environment that had seemed familiar to him has how become altered in a profound,threatening
sense"(Xenakis) Creating music human conscience was basing for Xenakis.Echo
of ancient systems,as main elements of his composition technique,sygnal in music,concrete
form in correlation with the space itself-is only one of vast variety of ideas,embodied
art form of musical sound by new imanges of compositional thought.Contrary to
academic sound types,computer programs,major stylistic complexes,he mixed all
information in new fomrs of individualism and musiciality.
"I write the music that i trust when I am writing it.But i dont think i am continuing
some tradition of european music[...].The environment changes all the time,but
man is not changing all the time.Sometimes he is caught by the changes and he
thinks he's crazy or that other people are crazy."
1978, Париж, Центр Помпиду "Бобур". 11 громкоговорителей, система из 1600 световых
стробоскопов и лазеров, премьера "Diatope" Ксенакиса, еще одной из наиболее
захватывающих жемчужин в короне его музыки. Музыка, написанная им после 70-х,
была сконцентрирована на абстрактном пути с примитивным человеческим опытом
- до языка, цивилизации и табу, парадоксальности, будучи аккомпаниментом утопическому
желанию быть свободным от экстернальных конструкций, но продолжающая оставаться
атмосферичной, высоко абстрактно-конгломератной, в диссонирующих облаках звучания.
"Kraanerg", написанная в период 1968, является одной из поздних оркестровых
работ Ксенакиса для пленки и оркестра - "пленочная часть" ее была оригинально
записана в конце 60-х, когда лента проигрывается в контраст "живой" музыке.
По словам Пола Гриффитса, композиция "leaves the listener with things either
totally meaningless or reduced to the base level of code, like the load repeated
notes that serve as alarm signals in everything from thrushes to automobile
horns". Ее звучание - как нервная система, она как война и деструкция. Музыка,
лишенная красот, развлечения и легкого наслаждения тишиной. Напротив, музыка
как конфронтация с окружающими элементами, как звук катастрофы - индивидуального
бунта против всего окружающего вокруг. "I used mathematics in early music with
probably theories; now I don't use that - because it's in my blood".
Музыка Ксенакиса на "Kraanerg" экстремальна; если он пишет о чем-то, то говорит
силами природы и о силах природы, как мы их понимаем, через математический феномен.
От брутального до жестокости мира насилия к геометрии чарующего природного естества
жизни, он приоткрывает нам весь спeктр существования. "Xenakis is using abstract
patterns, and abstraction leaves much more responsibility to the looker or listener
or experiencer. That's inherent to the art and to its development. The music
deals with struggle. Le Corbusier translated war into his visual designs in
architecture. A side of one of le Corbusier's buildings looks like the iron
sections of a side of a battleship riveted together. These ideas of modern life
incorporated into art were very important to La Corbusier, and that influenced
Xenakis. He used the aural sensations of war, and translated this sensation
into music. These are very important concepts. And it's not all that difficult
to understand this aspect in Xenakis. It all deals with bright colors and incredible
sounds. He doesn't want to repeat and do in a second-hand fashion what somebody
else has already done," - сказал о Ксенакисе Charles Bornstein, дирижер и основатель
ST-X Ensemble, долгое время работавший с композитором и не раз представлявший
его произведения в США. - "This was his process through the late Fifties and
early Sixties. In the Seventies his music took off from a whole different vantage
point. "Kraanerg" is Xenakis' last modern work. After "Kraanerg" he went ancient
- the same way Stravinsky went Neoclassic after the Diaghilev period. So from
going ancient and having all of these hyper-modern techniques from the computer,
he developed a new brand of primitivism - pre-religion, towards pre-ritualism.
Xenakis' is pre-language-era music. His music is very Romantic. I'm speaking
about unique sonorities invented by Mozart, Ravel, Xenakis, maybe even Schonberg,
too. Tremendous, exceptional. And Xenakis is difinitely part of this grouping"...
...В 1997 нью-йоркский лэйбл Sombient/Asphodel выпустил в свет запись "Kraanerg",
исполненную в Большом зале нью-йоркского "Cooper Union" в ноябре 1996 в присутствии
автора ST-X Ensemble под управлением Charles Zacharie Bornstein; выход в свет
данной работы сегодня стал возможен благодаря специальному гранту "The Foundation
for Hellenic Culture" 92nd St.Y (Нью-Йорк), их серии "Today's Composers" и французскому
аташе по культуре посольства Франции в Нью-Йорке. Квадро-звучание.
"Here we touch on one of the great problems that have haunted human intelligence
since antiquity: continuous or discontinuous transformation... transformation"
(Xenakis, "Formalized Music", 1955)
С использованием инфо "Seconds" # 42, 1997, "Modern Music Page", а также буклета